Class Notes: 10/16/2022

The book of Romans part 84; Rom 2:4; and Rom 2:5;

In our verse-by-verse study of Romans we are in Rom 2:4; where so far our expanded translation is "Or do you disparage the riches of his gracious generosity "

"And the tolerance" is "kai o anoche" While the anthropopathism "kindness" is easy to understand from a human frame of reference related to God's essence, "anoche" that means to hold back, delay, or restraint is not as easy until we use a similar word that represents an anthropopathism such as the word "clemency."

Clemency is a disposition of mercy that is an act of compassion. Clemency in this context is related to divine justice and propitiation. It is seen in the restraint of God's judgment that permits everyone an equal opportunity for salvation adjustment to God's justice.

Clemency is directed toward the human race in the continuation of human history. The fact that many people, maybe even a majority, reject Jesus Christ as savior does not diminish or destroy the opportunity for others.

Since Christ died for all, clemency explains why. God does not destroy the entire human race because some members of the human race reject Jesus and remain maladjusted to God's justice.

The unbeliever's heathen reversionism in history does not result in God immediately dropping the hammer on the entire human race. That's clemency.

History moves on in spite of their arrogant negative volition at God-conscious and gospel hearing, and in spite of their heathenistic degeneracy that results in perversion, criminality and maximum evil. That is clemency.

"And patience" from "kai makrothumia" that means patience toward others. The key to "makrothumia" is found in Strabo's book "Geographica" where the word is used for a desperate patience in the extreme emergency of a siege.

No stone was left unturned to avoid the destruction, violence, and slavery that would result from the enemy's success with their siege. The ways that they staved off destruction and held off the enemy was described as "makrothumia."

It means to use every possible bit of ingenuity, every scheme, every plan, any and every tactic that could possibly work together to defeat the enemy. This helps us to understand the anthropopathism that ascribes to God a patience that has done everything to stave off condemning us.

He uses every plan, apart from compromising His integrity, to avoid having to implement eternal judgment.

"Not knowing that" the present active participle of "agnoeo" (a = negative; gnoeo = not to know or to be ignorant), translated "being ignorant" or "not knowing." The present tense is a customary present that denotes what habitually occurs in unbeliever reversionism.

The active voice: the self-righteous reversionist produces the action of the verb. Plus the conjunction "oti" translated "that," a Greek conjunction used after verbs of perception or non-perception, as in this case to express the non-perception.

"The kindness of the God" the nominative neuter singular from the definite article "hoti" to reference the previous usage of "chrestotes" in the verse. Then we have the nominative neuter singular of "chrestotes" that is used as a noun to describe God's kindness, the gracious act of God in not destroying the sinner without first deploying every possibility for His justice to save and bless sinners instead of condemning them.

Plus the possessive genitive of "Theos" because when kindness is ascribed to
God it is an anthropopathism. The definite article "o" is used with the proper name of God to make it clear that the God (Jesus Christ) who is well known to those who are studying the passage.

"Leads you" the present active indicative from the verb "ago" that means to lead, to bring, to take along. Here it means, "brings you." This is a tendential present tense used as an action that is not taking place but represents the idea of what is intended.

God intends to save everyone, but it doesn't always work that way because people have free will and they can say no to God, they can reject believing in Jesus the only requirement for receiving God's righteousness that God loves with a perfect love.

So that which tends toward reality is the connotation of the tendential present. Here the grace or kindness of God having the tendency or the intent to bring the unbeliever to instant salvation adjustment to the justice of God is the idea.

This is what God intends, but in the context it is not what is happening. The active voice: the kindness of God produces the action of the verb in principle but not in reality.

The indicative mood is the potential indicative, depending on the volition of the individual at the point of gospel hearing at any time, as long as he is still physically alive. There is also the accusative singular direct object from the personal pronoun "su" translated "you."

"To repentance" is "eis" plus the accusative singular from "metanoia." It means a complete change of mind that results in believing in Jesus Christ for salvation. It emphasizes salvation in the context of free volition.

Expanded Translation Rom 2:4; "Or do you disparage the riches of his gracious generosity and clemency and patience; not knowing that the kindness of the God brings you to a change of mind."

Rom 2:5; The NASB reads "But because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart."

This begins with "kata" translated "because" plus the postpositive conjunctive particle "de," translated "but" that is used to set up a contrast between the grace of God in the previous verse and the reversionistic stubborn unrepentant status of the unbeliever in this verse.

In the first 16 verses of this chapter it refers to a Gentile in reversionism and in the rest of the passage it refers to a Jew. The Jew and the Gentile must be covered separately because the Gentile does not have the Mosaic Law and the Jew does so we have two categories of doctrine to consider here.

What we have here we have a person who has rejected the Gospel that was communicated by God the Holy Spirit under common grace and the person understands the Gospel and says "no" and now they are arrogantly asking God to accept their righteousness instead of God's righteousness.

"Because of your stubbornness" from " kata" plus the accusative of "sklerotes" that means stubbornness or hardness because it is referring to scar tissue.

When you are stubborn for a long time you develop a callous, but it is not a callous on the skin, it is in a more critical place in the right lobe of the soul aka the heart.

Stubbornness or hardness of heart comes from scar tissue in the soul. "And unrepentant heart" the connective "kai " translated "and" continues the prepositional phrase. It is not a conjunction connecting clauses here, it merely it's merely a connection for the continuation of a prepositional phrase.

In other words, "unrepentant heart" also goes with "kata"(because). The accusative singular from the adjective "ametanoetos" (a = negative; metanoia = repentance or change of mind) so it is translated "unrepentance or non-repentance."

With it is the accusative singular from the noun "kardia," translated "heart." So, it is "because to your hardness and unrepentant heart." The words "hardness and unrepentant heart" mean that scar tissue of the soul plus non-repentance results in maximum maladjustment to the justice of God.

The evil function of unrepentant of scar tissue accumulates self-righteousness for use in self-justification. The accumulation of self-righteousness becomes the basis for the unbeliever's future judgment and punitive action from God's justice.

In the New Testament the word "kardia" translated "heart" always refers to the soul, not the organ of the physical body that pumps blood."

You are storing up" is the present active indicative from the verb "thesaurizo" that means to collect and store wealth, to save up, to reserve, to hoard. Here it means to store up and accumulate.

This wealth is spiritual so it is comprised of words, concepts and ideas. They are storing up fake wealth from self-righteousness rather than true wealth from God's righteousness so instead of blessing they will get cursing from God's justice.

The present tense is a retroactive progressive present denoting something begun in the past and continues into the present. This began when they rejected God the Holy Spirit's communication of the Gospel message that resulted in their becoming maladjusted to God's justice and because of their reversionism they accumulated scar tissue in their soul that resulted in hardness of heart

The active voice: the self-righteous Gentile unbeliever produces the action of the verb. The indicative mood is declarative that views the action of the verb as reality.

" Wrath for yourself," "wrath is translated from "orge," "for yourself" is translated from "seautou." "Wrath" is an anthropopathism that describes God's judgment against reversionism. The absence of the definite article calls attention to the high quality of this judgment. The one who is judging is perfect; so His condemnation is perfect.

In the day of wrath" is the preposition "en" plus the locative of "hemera," "the day," plus the descriptive genitive of "orge," "on the day of wrath." The day of wrath is the last judgment; the great white throne judgment is the final judgment from God's justice on those with salvation maladjustment.

"And revelation" from the ascensive "kai" translated "and" with the appositional genitive of the Greek noun that means disclosure, "apokalupsis" referring to the revelation, or the final disclosure where God's judgment is finally rendered.

"The righteous judgment of God" translated from the descriptive genitive of "dikaiokrisia," "dikaio" ="righteous" + "krisis"=" judgment." The absence of the definite article again emphasizes the qualitative aspect of this noun.

The ablative of source is "o Theos," meaning " the God." The definite article with the noun indicates that the God, Jesus Christ who is well known to the readers.

It is hard to imagine the shock, and the trauma that will come to the self-righteous unbelieving do gooder who stands before the Lord Jesus Christ at the great white throne where his self-righteousness is completely and totally rejected and he finds out is going to the lake of fire not to heaven. This is why there will be weeping and gnashing teeth.

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