Class Notes: 1/8/2023
The book of Romans part 103; Rom 2:8; and Rom 2:9;
In our verse-by-verse study of Romans we are in Rom 2:8; where we are working on the word "orge" translated wrath or anger.
So far our expanded translation is: "But to those on the other hand who from inordinate ambition, also disobey the gospel (truth), but continue obeying injustice (wickedness or evil resulting from salvation maladjustment to God's justice", anger..."
We noted that the consequence of rejecting the gospel also means their acceptance of a lie that is comprised of new system of doctrine that becomes their frame of reference, and that new system of doctrine is satan's policy of evil.
So "adikia" is used to describe a new system instead of an integrity system. "Adikia" is maladjustment to God's justice; "dikaiosune" is adjustment to God's justice.
"wrath" the predicate nominative "orge," is a post-Homeric noun. It is used in the Attic Greek to use the thrusting and surging in nature, to describe the impulsive state of human disposition.
It was used to describe the sea that is calm one moment and very stormy the next. In the Attic Greek Esculus and Sophocles used "orge" as a tragic flaw and this tragic flaw was not blind anger but was described as a demonic excess of will in the nature of the tragic person.
"Orge" eventually came to mean a reaction in the soul or a manifestation of a powerful inner reaction. It is a reaction that leads to revenge, to impulsive retaliation, and to the punishment of someone by acting as judge, jury, and executioner.
"Orge" means not only to become very angry in a reaction but also to act as a judge and jury, not from the facts but from the passion of one's emotion.
It denotes irritation toward someone and from that irritation negative judgment. In other words, you are judging someone on the basis of being irritated rather than the facts of the case.
When "orge" is ascribed to God as an anthropopathism it refers to God's judgment on the unbeliever. So this comes to mean the concept of God's justice protecting from evil. God is righteously indignant. He evaluates from His perfect righteousness, and He judges from perfect justice so he executes perfect righteousness with perfect justice.
The next word is 'thumos," translated, "indignation" that has a slightly different connotation. It is derived from the verb "thuw" that is translated "indignation." "Thuw" means to boil up, to cause to go up in smoke.
This means that "thumos" is also an anthropopathism referring to God's eternal judgment of the unbeliever. So one of these words has to do with God's judgment in time and one with eternity.
Expanded Translation: "But to those on the other hand who from inordinate ambition, also disobey the gospel (truth), but continue obeying injustice (wickedness or evil resulting from salvation maladjustment to God's justice), anger (judgment in time) and wrath (judgment in eternity)."
What we see in this verse is negative volition at the point of gospel hearing that is motivated by arrogant self-righteousness. The self-righteous do gooder unbeliever is motivated by their own ideas of right and wrong.
These self-righteous people also have inordinate ambition that demands the use of their own arrogant self-righteousness legalistic agenda.
Therefore, his continuing in maladjustment to God's justice establishes a system of injustice, wickedness and evil in his life. Disobedience to the gospel, negative volition at salvation, means obedience to evil and the perpetuation of that maladjustment.
The perpetuation of unbeliever reversionism causes God's righteousness to demand that God's justice adjust to the maladjusted unbeliever, and that means "orge."
God's justice is expressed with two anthropopathisms: "orge" = judgment from His justice in time on both a personal and national basis; "thumos" = judgment from God's justice for eternity in the lake of fire.
Unbelievers will either adjust to God's justice of God or God's justice will adjust to unbelievers. The context is for this is unbeliever reversionism or maladjustment to God's justice at Gospel hearing.
Verses 7 & 8, describe the eternal alternatives: Adjustment to God's justice at salvation by faith in Christ produces blessing. Salvation blessing comes in at least 40 categories of blessing from God's justice.
Maladjustment to God's justice at salvation by rejecting Jesus produces the cursing of divine judgment at the great white throne. From the eternal alternative described verses 7&8 we move to temporal alternatives in verses 9&10.
Verse 9 described the temporal pay-off to the unbeliever from maladjustment in time. Verse 10 describes the temporal pay-off to the believer or the adjusted person in time.
Jews and Gentiles are both included in each category because neither race nor culture is the issue. The issue is simply adjustment or maladjustment to God's justice.
In verses 9 & 10 we see the alternatives from God's justice. In verses 9-16, we see judgment function toward maladjusted evil. We are talking about a self-righteous evil that is the worst kind of evil because the evil self-righteous person thinks he is in good standing before God on the basis of the evil of human good.
Rom 2:9; "Tribulation" from the predicate nominative "thlipsis," means pressure, distress, affliction, oppression from external circumstances that cause suffering.
It is used here for personal suffering in contrast to historical disaster. Since the verb is not stated but implied by the predicate nominative so we translate it "There is or there will be pressure (personal suffering)."
The second predicate nominative, "and distress," "stenochoria," that means distress or anguish. It is used here to describe historical or national disaster. It is derived from the Attic Greek adjective "steno" that means, "narrow, or too tight, referring to a very cramped uncomfortable restricted space.
So there is pressure (personal suffering) and distress (historical disaster). God's justice uses historical, environmental, and personal circumstances as the source of adversity for the administration of punitive action to the unbeliever reversionists because they have rejected the "epignwsis" gospel message that results in both personal and national disaster.
"for every soul" - the preposition "epi" plus the accusative of "psuche." There is a problem here because the preposition "epi" does not always mean the same thing.
"Epi" plus the genitive always emphasizes contact; "epi" plus the locative emphasizes position, and "epi plus" the accusative emphasizes motion or direction. In this case "epi pas psuche" is "for every soul."
"of man" is the possessive genitive from "anthrwpos" "of mankind." This refers to the human soul. It refers to self-consciousness, volition, and the entire essence of the soul.
When there are the wrong things in the soul it means disaster and pressure from God's justice. The wrong thinking in the soul comes from arrogance.
The human soul is the issue in adjustment or maladjustment to God's justice and all reversionism is found in the soul. Lack of the gospel for the unbeliever and lack of doctrine for the believer is the source of the problem. So one's attitude toward doctrine determines adjustment and maladjustment to the justice of God.
"who does evil" from the present middle participle of the verb "katergazomai" that means to achieve, to accomplish, to bring about, to create, to produce. The verb describes something on the inside working to the outside.
Evil always starts in the soul. The present tense is retroactive progressive present it refers to what was begun in the past and continues into the present. In this case it refers to the reversionistic unbeliever producing evil, but remember believer reversionism also produces evil.
The verb is in the middle voice but the meaning is active. The reversionistic unbeliever produces the action of the verb. The participle is circumstantial for the unbeliever reversionist producing the evil.
With this is the accusative singular direct object from the adjective "kakos," translated "evil." It has the definite article with it because it is assumed that believers understand evil as satan's policy. The definite article is used to describe evil as something that believers already understand so no additional explanation is necessary.
The Greek uses the definite article with abstract nouns to indicate abstract concepts that are understood or must be understood before the general concepts can be understood because the definite article in the Greek is totally different from its use in English.
"of the Jew first" racial or cultural things are never issues; evil is the issue. This is the genitive of reference "Ioudaios." The Jews are mentioned first because this is the fourth and most important of the post-diluvian races.
While the Jews are first and foremost in privilege they are not exempt from the principle of adjustment or maladjustment to God's justice. No race is excluded so race is not an issue.
All races are included, even the Jews who are a privileged race. The adverb "prwton" is the adverb of degree that means "especially" or "above all." The Jews as custodians of the TNACH, plus being a priest nation, had greater responsibility so we will translate it "especially with reference to the Jew."
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