Class Notes: 6/1/2023

The book of Romans part 137; Rom 3:4; Rom 3:5;

In our verse by verse study of Romans we are in Rom 3:4; Where last time we stopped just as Paul was about to quote part of David's rebound prayer in Psa 51:4;

The phrase starts with "as it is written" begins with an adverb, "kathos" translated" just as" that introduces a quotation from the Old Testament.

Next the perfect passive indicative from the verb "grapho" that means to write. The perfect tense is a grammatical perfect or the rhetorical use of the intensive perfect.

The action is completed and the existing results are before us in the fact that there is a completed Old Testament canon from which the apostle Paul is quoting.

The passive voice: the relevant Old Testament passages receive the action of the verb; they are quoted. The indicative mood is declarative used for a dogmatic assertion of fact, a quotation from the OT scriptures.

"that you may be justified" from the adverb "hopos" is used as a conjunction, and with it a conjunctive particle that is very unusual, "an." It comes from the Attic Greek, where it was used with the aorist subjunctive to form a purpose clause.

Generally it is translated "in order that" or "for the purpose of." The particle "an" cannot be translated with a single English word. Its meaning depends upon the meaning and tense of the verb that it is used with.

Here it is used to indicate a perfect clause. And this is not Koine Greek. Then the aorist passive subjunctive of the verb "dikaioo" (dika = righteousness, and the adjective from which it is derived here is dikaioo).

The verbal form, "dikaioo," means to make righteous, to establish as right, to validate. In the Koine Greek it means to justify, to declare righteous, to vindicate, to show justice, or to do justice.

Here it is used for vindication of God's integrity, especially God's justice but it does not exclude God's righteousness. This amounts to an anthropopathism because God never ever needs vindication.

It is a gnomic aorist, used for a fact that God's integrity is axiomatic in quality and in character. So the aorist is used as though it has always existed and always will exist.

The idiom is translated by the English present tense. It is also a dramatic aorist. The dramatic aorist states the reality of divine integrity with the absolute certainty of a past event.

God has always been righteous and just, He always will be because He cannot change. The passive voice: God's essence with emphasis on His integrity receives the action of the verb. The subjunctive mood is used to introduce a purpose clause.

"in Your words" the preposition "en" plus the instrumental plural of cause or means, "logos. "Logos" in the plural means words containing doctrine, and we have the instrumental of means, so it is "by means of doctrine."

But it is specifically someone's doctrine; the possessive genitive singular from the intensive pronoun "autos," used to emphasize God as the owner because he owner is God.

Since God is infinite, eternal, invisible, and incomprehensible it is necessary for God to reveal Himself to mankind through Bible doctrine.

The doctrines of scripture always vindicate God's integrity.

God's integrity is demonstrated through the perception of Bible doctrine.

Mankind can only adjust to God's justice through doctrine.

First, there is the gospel; the doctrine required for salvation then the whole realm of doctrine for the believer in Jesus Christ.

This is why maximum doctrine resident in the thinking is maturity adjustment to God's justice.

"and prevail" from the continuative use of the conjunctive particle "kai." "Nikao" means to prevail, to conquer, or to overcome. It is translated "that you might prevail" or "be the victor."

The aorist tense is a culminative aorist, that views the action in its entirety but regards it from the viewpoint of its results. The active voice: the person and integrity of God produces the action. The subjunctive mood is used to indicate the continuation of the purpose clause.

"That you may prevail," means that God's justice in judging is always right.

"when You are judged" the prepositional phrase is "en" plus the locative of the definite article, with the infinitive to denote contemporaneous time.

The infinitive of time is equivalent to a temporal clause. This is a case where you take the preposition "in" and make it when. The present passive infinitive of "krino" is the object of the infinitive.

The passive of "krino" refers to the judgment that people customarily pass upon the lives and actions of others, so "krino" has the connotation of slander or maligning.

There is also the accusative singular of general reference from the pronoun "su," and from this we derive the fact of being slandered,"

'Su" becomes the subject of the infinitive. The personal pronoun refers to God. Literally it means, "when you are being slandered."

The present tense is a historical present in which a past event is viewed with the vividness of a present occurrence. The passive voice: God, the perfect judge, is being criticized and slandered.

Expanded Translation Rom 3:4: "Emphatically not: rather, let the God be proven reliable, though every man a liar; as it stands written, In order that you might be demonstrated as just by means of your doctrines, and that you may prevail when you are being slandered."

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