Class Notes: 9/21/2023

The book of Romans part 167; Rom 4:2-3;

In our verse-by-verse study of Romans last time we started Romans chapter 4. When we stopped last time we were in verse 2.

Rom 4:2;"For if Abraham was justified by works" the postpositive conjunctive particle "gar" (for) is used first as an inferential conjunction to introduce the hypothetical supposition. This supposition is based on the assumption that assumes the viewpoint of the legalistic Jews.

The conditional particle "ei" (if) introduces the protasis of a debater's first class condition in which Paul assumes the erroneous position of legalism, specifically the legalistic Jews who contend for justification by works for salvation.

The fallacy of the theory of justification by works is refuted by first of all assuming it to be true and then following up by showing how irrational it is. Then the aorist passive indicative of the verb "dikaioo" (justify or vindicate).

Paul assumes the position of the legalists for a brief moment in order to show them how stupid they are and how fallacious their position is. This is a constantive aorist tense that contemplates instant adjustment to God's justice and gathers it into one entirety or bucket.

With the legalist there is no such thing as instant adjustment to God's justice because you have to keep the law over a long period of time. It takes a long time to develop self-righteousness by keeping the Mosaic Law.

The constantive aorist is used in sarcasm. The passive voice: the subject is Abraham who receives the action of the verb under the assumption of justification by works. Abraham did not and could not use the Mosaic Law for salvation because it didn't even exist yet.

The indicative mood is potential because this is not a real true statement. Next is a prepositional phrase, "ek" (from) then the ablative plural of means "ergon"(works).

The normal way to state means is the instrumental case. The ablative case is also used to state means when the source is implied. The source here is 'ergon" (works). The translation should be, "For assuming that Abraham has been justified by means of works." In this case "ei" (if) would be translated "assuming" with the first class condition of "if" it is "assuming to be true."

Paul is going to explain that human works actually compete with and compromise God's work because justification is work that only God's integrity can accomplish.

Remember that righteousness is the principle of God's integrity and justice is the function of God's integrity. Justification is the judicial act of God whereby mankind makes salvation adjustment to God's justice freeing God's justice to provide the gift of God's righteousness resulting in vindication.

The imputation of God's righteousness at the moment of faith in Christ is the only way that God can justify or vindicate any member of the human race. Justification is the result of having God's righteousness that is the only basis for eternal relationship and blessing from God.

Justification is salvation relationship with God's integrity. Justification is not forgiveness because forgiveness is subtraction but justification is addition. Forgiveness subtracts sin but justification adds righteousness.

Only believing in Jesus can forgive sin AND add God's righteousness.

Justification refers to salvation adjustment to God's justice because at the moment we believe in Jesus Christ God gives each one of us His righteousness. No works and no payment is involved because Jesus Christ paid the penalty for our sins on the cross when God's justice judged Him for our sins as our substitute.

God's justice must judge our sins before God's justice is free to bless us with the grace advantages of God's righteousness for salvation. The mechanics for salvation adjustment to God's justice are summarized under the word grace. Grace is God's policy and God's justice implements God's grace to bless mankind.

"he has something to boast about" - the present active indicative of "echo" (he has) The present tense is a progressive present for action in a state of progress.

The active voice refers to Abraham who is the test case who produces the action under the assumption of debater's technique. The indicative mood is the potential indicative as a part of debater's technique. The accusative singular direct of "kauchema" (boast) "he has a basis for boasting."

"but not before God" the adversative conjunction "alla" (but) sets up a contrast between human assumptions and God's reality. Plus the objective relative adverb "ou" (not) that rejects the reality of their assumption.

Then the prepositional phrase "pros" (before or face to face with) plus the accusative of "Theos" (God) "face to face with or/before God."

Expanded Translation Rom 4:2; "Assuming that Abraham was justified by means of works, he has a basis for boasting, but not before God."

We see from this that God is not impressed with human ability, human personality, human good, or human works. God is only impressed with God's righteousness and God's works. Therefore God's integrity completely rejects all human good.

In fact trying to use human good for salvation is evil because salvation by works is man competing with God's work. Salvation by works is man declaring his self-righteousness is as good as God's perfect, eternal, infinite righteousness.

Therefore salvation by works is blasphemy because salvation by works completely rejects God's integrity and that means that salvation by works is maladjustment to God's justice. Maladjustment to God's justice means that God's justice can only condemn and punish in time and eternity.

Rom 4:3; "For what does the scripture say?" The postpositive conjunctive particle gar (for) used as an explanatory conjunction to confirm a specific principle, plus the nominative neuter singular of the interrogative pronoun "tis" (what) in the neuter; in the masculine or feminine gender it is "who."

In this case it is "what" so we have "For what." Then the nominative singular subject of "graphe" (Scripture) referring to a writing, in this case a specific writing, the Old Testament Scripture, plus the definite article, and then the present active indicative of "lego"(say) that means to say or to communicate.

The present tense of "lego" (say) is the present of duration, denoting what has begun in the past and continues into the present time. The Scripture always remains the Scripture and Scripture is always Gods final authority on any subject.

The active voice: the Scripture that is the absolute authority produces the action. The indicative mood is the interrogative indicative assuming that there is an actual fact that may be stated in answer to the question. "For what does the scripture say?"

Using the Scriptures to destroy the straw man is a good idea because both Paul and the Judaizers accept the Old Testament canon as God's final authority. The appeal to the Scripture settles the matter no matter how it goes because even the Judaizers recognize the authority of the Old Testament.

Gen 15:6; - "Abraham had already believed in the Lord." The hiphil perfect tense from the verb "aman"(believe). In the hiphil stem "aman" means to believe. The object is the Tetragrammaton "YHWH" that refers to the second person of the Trinity who we call "Jehovah" (Lord).

Then the preposition, "be" (in). The perfect tense indicates that Abraham had previously believed in Christ before the event in Genesis 15. In fact, he had believed as a Gentile Acadian while he was residing in Ur.

The mechanics for his adjustment to God's justice are clearly defined as believing. His faith in Christ is compatible with God's grace principle in salvation adjustment to God's justice.

"and it was reckoned to him for righteousness." "Chashab" (reckon) in the qal perfect tense means to impute something to someone.

It was used in business for crediting to someone's account. With it is the third feminine singular suffix referring to Abraham's salvation adjustment to God's justice. There is also the feminine noun, "tsedaqah" (righteousness) that refers to God's righteousness that is one half of God's integrity.

Gen 15:6; "Now he (Abraham) had believed in the Lord, and He [God the Father] had imputed it (faith in Christ) to him (Abraham) for righteousness."

Romans 4:3, Paul quotes Gen 15:6; as the answer to the question "for what does the scripture say" "Abraham believed in God" the enclitic particle "de" (but) is used as a transitional conjunction without any intended contrast. It is translated to correspond to "vav" (now) that is translated "now" in the Hebrew. Net note 20

Then the indeclinable proper noun "Abraam" (Abraham) plus the aorist active indicative of "pisteuo" (believed) the equivalent to the Hebrew perfect of "aman" (believed) in the hiphil stem. This is a constantive aorist that is often used to describe momentary action.

A constantive aorist can occur in an instant of time but it gathers the action all together into one entirety or bucket however long it takes. In this case the event of believing in Jesus Christ is gathered up in one entirety.

The active voice: Abraham produces the action of the verb at the moment he believes in Jesus Christ. The indicative mood is declarative representing the verbal action from the viewpoint of historical reality. With this is the dative of indirect object of " o Theos" (the God).

Jesus Christ is "o Theos" because "Theos" has the definite article "o" (the) preceding it so we already know who "o Theos" is. He is Addonai or Jehovah. The definite article is used to identify someone who we know.

So the straw man of the previous verse is destroyed by a simple line of quotation. The assumption that Abraham was justified by works is refuted by quoting Gen 15:6; from the scripture that states that Abraham was justified by faith.

Rom 4:3; "and it was credited to him as righteousness" the connective use of "kai" (and), plus the aorist passive indicative of "logizoma" (credited) is used commercially for crediting to someone's account. Here it means to impute a credit to someone's account.

The aorist tense is a culminative aorist. Salvation adjustment to God's justice in its entirety is referenced here, but emphasis is placed on the result. Then the dative singular indirect object of "autos" (his) is used as a personal pronoun to emphasize the person as being great.

This is a perfect illustration that in a debate would shut the Judaizers down because, as goes Abraham so goes the Judaizers. No Judaizer is going to argue with Abraham or Moses.

The problem with the Judaizers was that they considered themselves experts on Abraham and Moses but actually they had rejected the God of Abraham and Moses, the Lord Jesus Christ so they really knew nothing about Abraham or Moses in their relationship to God.

They had done the same thing with the Mosaic Law. They understood it was a description of God's perfect righteousness but they did not understand that God's purpose for it was condemnation.

Then we have a dative of indirect object that means personal benefit indicating the one in whose interest the imputation of divine righteousness is performed. The prepositional phrase: "eis" (for) plus the accusative singular of "dikaiosune" (righteousness) translated "for righteousness."

Expanded Translation Rom 4:3; "For what does the scripture say? Now Abraham had believed the God (the Lord Jesus Christ), and it (faith in Jesus Christ) was credited to him (Abraham) for righteousness."

Abraham was a Semitic Gentile living in Ur of Acadia and instead of worshiping the moon god like everyone else Abraham was positive at the point of God-consciousness.

The means of his Gospel hearing is unknown, but the result of his gospel hearing is clearly stated in Gen 15:6; and quoted in Rom 4:3.

Abraham believed in the Lord Jesus Christ. This is instant adjustment to God's justice and Paul will amplify this in Rom 5:1.

Salvation adjustment to God's justice through believing in Jesus Christ results in receiving one half of God's integrity: God's perfect righteousness.

Because he had believed in Jesus Christ Abraham possessed God's righteousness so God's justice pronounced Abraham righteous.

To pronounce someone righteous is justification. Abraham is the pattern for Old Testament justification, but he is also the pattern for all justification.

Jesus Christ was revealed in different ways in Old Testament times but how ever He was revealed positive volition always responds in the same way by believing.

This tells us that salvation is always acquired in the same way so faith in Christ is instant adjustment to God's justice for salvation.

At the point of that instant adjustment to God's justice the perfect, eternal righteousness of God is conveyed to each one of us. That transfer is called imputation.

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