Class Notes: 10/5/2023

The book of Romans part 170; Rom 4:7;

In our verse-by-verse study of Romans we left off at Rom 4: 6; "Just as David also describes the blessing on the man." This phrase is not quotation it is citation for documentation. The word translated "David" here is "Dauid"(David) is not referring to David as a person, it is referring to the entire book of Psalms.

Since David is the principle writer but not the only writer his name was often used to describe the entire book of Psalms. We have to go by the Jewish system of citation. For example, when the Jews were talking about the entire Old Testament canon they called it the law and the prophets, after the first two parts

The law is the first five books also called the Torah and the prophets comprise the second section of the Old Testament canon. Sometimes they called the Old Testament "the law," sometimes to the first five books and sometimes to anywhere in the Old Testament.

"Moses has said" refers to some documentation in the first five books; "David has said," often refers to the Psalms. Therefore it is the book of Psalms that is being cited and "David" is the reference to the book.

This begins with the adverb "kathaper"(just as) that is sometimes used as a conjunction, and when it is it means "just as." But with the adjunctive use of "kai" (also or and) that as also here, it means "even as."

Plus the present active indicative of "lego" (to speak), to say, to communicate, to confirm, or to confirm in writing). We could say, "as David confirms" or "Even as David also confirms."

The perfective present tense refers to the continuation of existing results. The Psalms are always there and always will be there, because as part of the canon of Scripture God will never permit them to be destroyed.

It emphasizes the fact that has come to be in the past but also stresses the fact it still exists at the present time. The active voice: David the human author produces the action. The indicative mood is declarative for the dogmatic assertion of a fact.

Plus the accusative singular direct object from the noun "makarismos" (happiness) from blessing). It is used here for salvation blessing from God's justice imputing God's righteousness along with the objective genitive "anthropos" (man) referring to a person.

"to whom the God credits righteousness without works" the dative masculine singular indirect object from the relative pronoun "hos" (to whom). The dative of indirect object specifies the one in whose interest the act is performed.

It is always the in the interest of any member of the human race to receive God's righteousness. It is in our personal, temporal, and eternal interest. Plus the nominative singular subject "o Theos" "the God," so the phrase should be translated "to whom the God."

Then the present active indicative from the verb "logizomai" (impute or credit). The static present is used for a perpetually existing fact, that when anyone believes in Jesus Christ, no matter who, when, or where they are is instantly credited with God's perfect righteousness forever.

Because of this believers immediately have standing with God. The active voice: God produces the action of the verb. The indicative mood is declarative for the dogmatic assertion of the imputation of God's righteousness at the moment of salvation.

The word "righteousness" is the accusative singular direct object, "dikaiosune" (righteousness). That is God's righteousness, and it can never have any human righteousness associated with it.

Then comes the adverb "choris" (apart from or without) used as an improper preposition, plus the genitive plural of "ergon" (works) "apart from works."

Expanded Translation Rom 4:6; "Even as David also communicates the blessing to the man to whom the God credits righteousness apart from works."

The next two verses are a quotation from Psa 32:1,2. "Happinesses (esher) to those whose transgression is forgiven"-salvation adjustment to the justice of God; "whose sin is covered."

"Happinesses to the man to whom the Lord does not impute sin"-this means that sins cannot be imputed because righteousness is imputed. This is a way of describing the imputation of God's righteousness from the opposite perspective.

Rom 4:7; The nominative plural subject from the noun "makarios" (happinesses) means happinesses not blessed as translated in every English translation I looked at.

The plural refers to the happinesses that come from the advantages the person receives at the point of salvation adjustment to God's justice. The reason it is in the plural is because salvation adjustment to the God results in many advantages being conveyed to the believer in Jesus Christ

Next is "hos" (those) the genitive of reference plural from the relative pronoun "hos" (those) it is a plural genitive of reference to match the plural "happinesses," so the correct translation is "Happinesses belong to those who."

Then the nominative plural subject "anomia" (lawlessness) in the singular but in the plural it means "lawlessnesses" or "lawless deeds." It includes sins but it is referring to more than sins.

Everything that comes from the old sin nature is lawless because it opposes God's law.

Next is the aorist passive indicative of the verb "aphiemi" (to pardon, to cancel, or to remit). The constantive aorist refers to the momentary action that occurs at that moment of salvation adjustment to God's justice when all of the accumulated manifestations of the old sin nature that are described as lawlessnesses are cancelled, pardoned, or forgiven.

The passive voice: lawlessnesses receives the action of the verb and are cancelled. The indicative mood is a dogmatic assertion of a fact describing what occurs at the point of salvation adjustment to God's justice.

Because many people are not familiar with the fact that the old sin nature has many ways of expressing lawlessness sin is mentioned as a separate category in order to make sure that it is understood that sin is included.

"and whose sins are covered" the connective use of "kai" (and), plus the nominative plural subject from "hamartia" (sin), plus the genitive plural of the relative pronoun "hos" (whose) so we have "and whose sins."

Then we have the aorist passive indicative from the verb "epikalupto" (epi = over); (kalupto = to hide), to hide over means to cover so it means to cover over, to be covered over.

This refers back to the blood that was sprinkled on the mercy seat in the ark of the covenant made of acacia wood and gold where the wood refers to the humanity of Christ, the gold the deity of Christ.

Inside are the articles that represent man's sins and failures, the lawlessness. Aaron's rod that budded that referenced lawlessness against the authority that God established; the pot of manna represents lawlessness regarding logistical grace; the broken tables of the law represented the lawlessness of sin.

Over the top was a gold throne called the mercy seat, and on each end was a cherub representing God's righteousness and God's justice, the two attributes that comprise God' perfect integrity.

They looked down and saw sin: righteousness rejects sin; justice pronounces judgment against sin and the penalty for sin is death.

But every year on the Day of Atonement the blood of the Levitical sacrifice was sprinkled over the top of the mercy seat. Righteousness looks at the blood and is satisfied. Justice looks at the blood and is satisfied.

The blood covers and that is what the word atonement means. In the Church Age we understand the "blood" is a metonymy for Jesus' substitutionary spiritual death from His judgment on the cross.

We see here that propitiation leads to the imputation of God's righteousness. God's justice could not give us His righteousness without being satisfied. It is propitiation that makes it possible for God's justice to give us anything and not be inconsistent with His perfect essence.

The aorist tense of "epikalupto" (cover) is a culminative aorist in which atonement by blood, or covering the mercy seat with the blood of animal sacrifices, is viewed in its entirety but it emphasizes the existing results of the imputation of God's righteousness.

The passive voice: sin receives the action of the verb. In the Old Testament animal blood was used as a covering to express the principle. In the New Testament, God's justice judging our sins in Jesus Christ as He was bearing our sins in His body is the cover.

Old Testament worship dealt with shadows or inferences; we deal with the reality. The indicative mood is declarative representing actuality from the viewpoint of reality.

Expanded Translation Rom 4:7; "Happinesses to those whose lawlessnesses have been forgiven and whose sins have been covered over."

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