Class Notes: 1/7/2024

The book of Romans part 191 Rom 4:24-25;

In our verse-by-verse study of Romans we are in Rom 4:24 where we will back up and start with the beginning of the verse.

"But also for us." The first word is the adversative conjunction "alla" (but) that sets up a contrast with the previous clause and joins them together. Plus the adjunctive use of the conjunction "kai" (also), translated "also," and the preposition "dia" (for) plus the accusative plural of the personal pronoun "hemas" (our or us) "but also for us or but also for our sake."

"to whom it shall be credited" the dative masculine plural indirect object from the relative pronoun "hos" (to whom), plus the present active indicative of the verb "mello" (is about) that means to be on the point of, to be about to be; it denotes an action that follows with certainty and so it means here to be destined.

The present tense of "mello" (about) is a futuristic present denoting an event which has not yet occurred but is regarded as so certain that in the mind of the writer it is considered to have already having taken place.

The active voice: God's justice produces the action by crediting God's righteousness to future believers. Paul had all believers who would live in the future in view. Writers of Scripture were aware of the fact that they were writing Scripture that would be available for believers forever.

The indicative mood is declarative for an authoritative assertion of a principle of doctrine. Then the present passive infinitive from the verb "logizomai" (credited) that is an iterative present describing what recurs at successive intervals every time anyone believes in Jesus Christ over the entire course of human history.

Paul looked down through human history and saw that many people would believe in Jesus Christ. The passive voice: God's righteousness receives the action of the verb of being imputed, to anyone who believes what God's Word says about the Lord Jesus Christ.

The infinitive is the infinitive of intended result. It blends the purpose and result into one concept: "to whom it is destined to be imputed."

"who believe on him" from "ho" (who or that)" "pisteuo" (believe) the articular present active participle of "pisteuo". The definite article "ho" is a dative plural indirect object used as a personal pronoun referring to Paul and all those who would believe in Jesus Christ in every generation throughout the entire course of human history.

The present tense is an aoristic present describing punctiliar action in present time, emphasizing the fact that faith in Jesus Christ creates instant adjustment to God's justice from the credit of God's righteousness.

The active voice: future believers from the time of Paul and through out all of human history would receive the action of the verb.

Then a prepositional phrase, "epi" (on) plus the accusative singular of the definite article "ho' (Him) used as a personal pronoun for God the Father whose part in salvation is emphasized because He judged our sins from His justice while Jesus was bearing them on the cross and He raised Jesus from the dead three days later.

A good translation is "when we believe on him." When Jesus was on the cross our sins were poured out upon Him and God the Father's justice judged every sin. So we believe in the Lord Jesus Christ who bore the sins for salvation.

But at least twice in the Scripture it is described in terms of simply believing in God, and even God the Father who had to judge His Son. So when it says here, "to whom it was destined to be imputed when we believe on him," this is a reference not to God the Son, the Savior, but to God the Father.

"who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead" the aorist active participle of "egeiro" (raised), is used here for resurrection. The definite article "ho" (Him) is used as a personal pronoun as the object with the preposition "epi" (on).

The aorist tense is a constantive aorist for an instantaneous action in past time. The active voice: God the Father produces the action of the verb by raising Jesus, the humanity of Christ from the dead.

The participle is circumstantial. With it is a double accusative direct object, "Isous tou Kuris hemon" (Jesus the Lord our). Then a final prepositional phrase, "ek" (from) plus the ablative plural of "nekros" (deaths the plural of death.).

Expanded Translation Rom 4:24; "But also for us to whom it was destined to be credited, when we believed on him who resurrected Jesus our Lord from deaths."

A question that could be asked is why does it say here to believe on Him who raised Christ and this is not the only place where this is stated. The object of faith being God the Father is also found in John 5:24.

In each case the object is God the Father. The object of faith in salvation adjustment God's justice of God is elsewhere and universally declared to be the Lord Jesus Christ who is the only savior as in Acts 4:12.

However, what these passages are really saying is that believing in Christ is tantamount to believing in God the Father who sent Christ, who judged our sins when Christ was bearing them on the cross and raised Christ again from the dead.

So when you believe in Christ, in effect you also believe in the Father. This is not delineated where salvation is presented as the issue. When salvation is presented as the issue Jesus Christ the one who was judged for us on the cross is presented as the savior.

But there are times and there are passages that indicate that when you believe in Christ you also believe in God the Father, whether or not you understand it.

Verse 25 tells us that justification is related to the strategic victory of our Lord Jesus Christ on the cross.

Rom 4:25; "Who was delivered because of our sins" the nominative singular subject from the relative pronoun "hos" (Who) references the antecedent, the Lord Jesus Christ.

Plus the aorist active indicative of the verb "paradidomi" (deliver) to deliver over, to hand over for judgment, or to deliver over for judgment. The constantive aorist tense gathers into one entirety the ministry of our Lord on the cross of bearing our sins and being judged for them by God's justice.

The passive voice: Jesus Christ received the action of the verb on the cross when He was being delivered to judgment. The indicative mood is declarative so it describes the idea from the viewpoint of reality.

Plus a prepositional phrase, "dia" (because) with the accusative plural of "paraptoma" (sins or transgressions) "dia" plus the accusative means (because of) so we have "Who has been delivered over for judgment because of our sins."

"and was raised because of our justification" the continuative use of "kai" (and) followed by the aorist passive indicative of "egeiro" (raised or resurrection). The aorist tense is a constantive aorist viewing the resurrection of Jesus Christ in its entirety.

The aorist tense describes momentary action. The passive voice; Jesus Christ received the action of the verb of being resurrected by both God the Father and God the Holy Spirit.

The resurrection is described as the work of God the Father in Col 2:12; 1Thes 1:10; 1 Peter 1:21; Romans 4:25

It is also attributed to the Holy Spirit in Acts 2:24; Romans 1:4; 8:11; 1Pet 3:18; depending on what action or phase of resurrection is being discussed.

In passages dealing with the mechanical function of resurrection it is described as the work of God the Father. In passages where the resurrection is glorifying the Lord Jesus Christ it is described as the work of God the Holy Spirit, because this is His ministry during the dispensations of the hypostatic union and the Church Age.

The indicative mood is declarative, the mood of unqualified assertion. The final prepositional phrase: "dia dikaiosis" (because of our justification). Not "for" but "because of" because our justification was completely finished on the cross.

Expanded Translation Rom 4:25; "Who was delivered over to judgment because of our sins and was resurrected from the dead because of our justification."

He had to be delivered over to judgment because we are sinners, but He was resurrected because justification by imputation was accomplished on the cross. Justification is not accomplished by resurrection because that would be "dia" plus the genitive.

Justification is accomplished on the cross "dia" plus the accusative, and He was resurrected from the dead because we were completely justified. Our justification was accomplished first.

What this is saying is that justification is the only means whereby God can bless us directly from His integrity. Therefore our complete justification must be positionally accomplished before Jesus is resurrected.

The testimony that sin had been judged at the cross and the judgment, or IOU against us had been cancelled, emphasizes the saving work of Jesus Christ on the cross that was completely accomplished on the cross before He died physically.

That means that our salvation was completely finished while Christ was still physically alive on the cross. Col 2:14,15; John 19:30;

This concludes our word-by-word verse-by-verse study of Romans chapter 4 and our completed expanded translation reads as follows:

Rom 4:1; "Therefore to what conclusion are we forced, that Abraham our human forefather has found?" or "Therefore what do we conclude that Abraham our forefather has found?"

Rom 4:2; "Assuming that Abraham was justified by means of works, he has a basis for boasting, but not before God."

Rom 4:3; "For what does the scripture say? Now Abraham had believed the God (the Lord Jesus Christ), and it (faith in Jesus Christ) was credited to him (Abraham) for righteousness."

Rom 4:4; "But to him who works for salvation his compensation (reimbursement) is not credited according to grace, but according to obligation."

Rom 4:5; "But to him who does not work for salvation but believes on him who justifies the unbeliever, his faith receives the imputed credit of God's righteousness."

Rom 4:6; "Even as David also communicates the blessing to the man to whom the God credits righteousness apart from works."

Rom 4:7; "Happinesses to those whose lawlessnesses have been forgiven and whose sins have been covered over."

Rom 4:8;"Happy is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin."

Rom 4:9; "Is this blessing therefore for the circumcision (the Jews) only? or is it also for the uncircumcised (the Gentiles) also? For we contend that his faith was credited to Abraham for righteousness."

Rom 4:10; "How then was it credited? While he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision but in uncircumcision."

Rom 4:11; "In fact he received the ritual mark of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness from the faith (exercised toward Christ) in the status of uncircumcision: that the same one (uncircumcised Abraham) might be a pattern to all who believe during uncircumcision; that God's righteousness might be credited to them."

Rom 4:12; "And the pattern of circumcision, not only to those from circumcision [Jews], but also to those who advance in the ranks from the source of doctrine, like our father Abraham in uncircumcision."

Rom 4:13; "For not through the law is that promise to Abraham and to his seed, that he will be the heir of the world, but through righteousness (imputed) by means of faith."

Rom 4:14; "For if they by means of the law are heirs (and we assume they are), then that faith has been voided with the result that it is permanently invalidated, and that promise has been cancelled."

Rom 4:15; "For the law brings about wrath (from God's justice) but where the law does not exist also no distortion of the law exists."

Rom 4:16; "For this reason it is by means of faith, in order that it might be in accordance with grace; that the promise of salvation might be valid to all the seed; not only to those from the law, but to those Gentiles from Abraham's faith; who is the pattern with reference to all of us.

Rom 4:17; "(As it is written, "I have made you the father of many nations"). He is our father in the presence of God whom he believed-the God who makes the dead alive and summons the non existent into existence."

Rom 4:18; "Who beyond hope of sexual prosperity believed in hope of fulfillment, in order that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which he had spoken, So your seed shall exist.

Rom 4:19; "And so, not becoming weak in the faith, he completely understood his own body which had become sexually dead when he was approximately one hundred years old; likewise he completely understood the barrenness of Sarah's womb."

Rom 4:20; "That is, with reference to the promise of God he did not stagger in unbelief; but he was energized (power was poured into him) by means of doctrine (resident in the soul), giving glory to the God."

Rom 4:21; "And having been fully convinced that what he himself (God) had promised he is able also to accomplish."

Rom 4:22; "And for this reason (salvation adjustment to God's justice) it (faith in Christ) was credited to him (Abram] for righteousness."

Rom 4:23; "Not it was written for him alone, that it was credited to him."

Rom 4:24; "But also for us to whom it was destined to be credited, when we believed on him who resurrected Jesus our Lord from deaths."

Rom 4:25; "Who was delivered over to judgment because of our sins and was resurrected from the dead because of our justification."

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