Class Notes: 4/14/2024

The book of Romans part 216 Rom 5:15;

In our verse-by-verse study of Romans we are in Rom 5:15; at the phrase "if by that transgression of the one."

"For if by that transgression" (referencing Adam's original sin) plus the possessive genitive singular from the definite article "ho" (that) functioning as a demonstrative pronoun per the Attic Greek.

With it is the genitive of the adjective numeral "eis" (one) explaining that one person at a certain point in human history determined the course of the entire human race.

It is translated "of the one" referring to Adam. Plus the nominative masculine plural from the adjective "polys" (many) with the definite article "ho" (the many) referring to the entire human race the only exception being Jesus Christ who was not born naturally because of His the virgin birth.

Next is the aorist active indicative of the verb "apothnesko" (died). The aorist tense is a constantive aorist that gathers into one entirety the implication of Adam's sin of spiritual death on everyone born into the human race.

The active voice describes the entire human race producing the action of the verb at the moment of physical birth. The indicative mood is declarative for a dogmatic statement of the doctrine of the universality of spiritual death in the human race.

"much more the grace of the God" the dative singular adjective "polus" (much) and the comparative adverb "mallon" (more). This is an idiom of greater degree and "much more" that is used to introduce the logic of a fortiori.

If the greater function of God's justice has occurred the lesser will not be withheld. God provides more in grace than Adam had in innocence before the fall. God provides more with His imputation of His own righteousness than He did in the garden where God's righteousness had not been imputed.

This means that God's remedy for the problem of the fall of mankind is much much greater than any amount of evil and sin that fallen people in spiritual death can do as a result of the fall. God's integrity love overwhelms mankind's evil. "and the gift by grace" the word translated "gift" is "dorea."

The word "charisma" is the word that indicates the ability related to the gift; "dorea" (gift) has an entirely different connotation. This is the nominative subject "dorea" (gift) that refers to Jesus' incarnation, hypostatic union, and impeccability, followed by God's justice in judging the personal sins of the entire human race to Jesus Christ when they were imputed to Him on the cross.

That means that it also includes atonement, redemption, reconciliation, and propitiation, because these are the much much greater things God has given while the lesser things God gave are imputation and justification.

The gift is the uniqueness of the person of Jesus Christ who is the "much more of the grace of God and the gift by the grace, by the one man, Jesus Christ." The words translated "the gift by the grace" are "en" (in) plus the instrumental case of "charis" (favor or grace).

The use of these two different words to describe grace gift means that we not only have grace as a principle but we also have grace as a means of provision.

The principle of grace and the action of grace are combined to explain it. Next we have the ablative of source from "eis" (one), and the noun "anthropos" (man) "by the one man," and then "Iesous Christos" (Jesus Christ).

This tells us that if God did the most for us when we were spiritually dead in Adam and He can do much more for us now that we are justified by possessing God's imputed righteousness.

That is because when the most was done for us we were related to the fallen Adam. But now we are related to the second Adam, our savior Jesus Christ.

" to the many abounded" "eis" (to) plus the accusative plural from the definite article "ho" (the), plus the accusative plural of "polus"(many). The only qualification is instant adjustment to God's justice for salvation by believing in Jesus Christ.

It is translated "to the many." referring to the many who believe. The verb means to increase or super abound. It is the aorist active indicative of the verb "perisseuo" (exceed or abound that is used as a transitive verb.

It means to make super rich, to provide in superabundance, to increase beyond one's imagination. We can translate it, "has provided superabundance for the many" or "has provided super-richness for the many."

The many are those who believe in Jesus Christ. Super richness abounds to the many who believe in Jesus Christ.

The aorist tense is a culminative aorist that views the work of Jesus Christ on the cross in its entirety but regards it from the viewpoint of what His finished work accomplished.

The existing results are the potential that comes at salvation, the imputation of God's righteousness that results in justification; it also includes capacity from the provision of Bible doctrine; and the reality of maturity adjustment to God's justice resulting in superabundance of blessing from God.

The active voice: Jesus Christ produces the action of the verb of providing superabundance for the many who believe in Him The indicative mood is declarative viewing the action of the verb from the viewpoint of existing results.

Expanded Translation Rom 5:15; But not as that transgression (Adam's original sin), so also is that gracious gift (the work of Christ). For if by the transgression of the one (Adam) the many died (spiritual death), much more the grace of the God, and the gift by grace, by the one man, Jesus Christ, who has provided superabundance for the many (who believe in Jesus Christ).

We see from this that through salvation adjustment to God's justice believers in Jesus Christ have been placed in a greater position than the position that was lost by Adam in his fall in the garden.

This is because God provides more in grace adjustment to God's justice than man ever possessed in the garden before the fall.

Jesus Christ who is God's gift of grace, Jesus Christ, provides the "a fortiori" link. God's justice did the most in judging our sins when Christ was bearing them for us on the cross.

If God's justice did the greater at the cross it follows a fortiori that God's justice can do the lesser regarding temporal and eternal blessing for the mature believer.

The sin of the first Adam results in the condemnation of the human race. But now God's grace gift provides more for the many than was originally lost by he one.

The work of Jesus Christ on the cross provides man with more than Adam had in the Garden of Eden before the fall. This means that the believer is not restored to the status of Adam before Adam's fall; he is restored to a position that is far greater than Adam ever had in the Garden.

So this is actually a double "a fortiori." If God can do the greater at salvation He can do the lesser after salvation and if God can do easier after salvation He can do that over and over again.

So salvation adjustment to God's justice that is easier than the work of Christ becomes greater again and again as believers attain maturity adjustment to God's justice.

Rom 5:16; "And not as it was by the one that sinned." Paul begins with the emphatic use of the conjunction "kai" (In fact), the objective negative adverb "ou" (not), denying the reality of an alleged fact, plus the comparative particle "hos"(as), plus the preposition "dia"( through) with the genitive for the adjective numeral "eis" (one), plus "anthropos" (man) that is implied but not stated.

"In fact, not like through one (Adam)." Plus the aorist active participle of the verb "hamartano" (who sinned). The aorist tense is the constantive aorist so it refers to a momentary action in past time, (the original sin of Adam). The active voice: Adam produced the action.

"so is the gift" the Greek word for gift is the nominative subject "dorema " (gift) that refers to the Lord Jesus Christ as the last Adam. "In fact, the gift is not like the one who sinned." The gift is the Lord Jesus Christ who never sinned.

In other words, the last Adam is not like the first Adam so the intention of this verse is to provide the a fortiori factor for the parenthetical phrase "much more."

"for the judgment was from one to condemnation" the postpositive conjunctive particle "gar" (for) is used in an explanatory sense, plus the affirmative particle "men" that usually works with the particle, "de" in the Classical Greek, as "for on the one hand; so on the other hand."

This is called the correlative use of the affirmative particle that sets up a contrast between the gift, the Lord Jesus Christ, and the first Adam. Plus another subject in the nominative singular "krima" (judgment) that usually refers to the action or the function of a judge, but here it is describing a judicial verdict.

"for on the one hand the judicial verdict came by one transgression resulting in condemnation." In other words, the judicial function of God's justice produced the verdict. The verdict came as the result of one transgression and it led to the condemnation of the entire human race.

Then we have "ek" (by) plus the ablative from "eis" (one) again (by one transgression). This is an ablative of means that is used here to express the basis or source of how something was accomplished.

We have the origin or the source of our condemnation, Adam's sin. Plus "eis" (one) with the accusative of the noun "katakrima" (punishment or condemnation). Condemnation was the verdict, so "katakrima" (punishment) means to execute the sentence of punishment that results in condemnation.

This means, first of all, from one to many. From one transgression (Adam's original sin) many condemnations (the entire human race); from one sin many spiritual deaths.

The gift that is the saving work of Jesus Christ on the cross is the means of establishing an a fortiori for this.

The gift resulted in many transgressions or sins being judged for one justification. The first Adam committed one sin and the entire human race came under condemnation because of that one sin.

The last Adam was judged for all sins and the entire human race is eligible for justification because of one man's righteousness. This sets up a fortiori that is a restatement with amplification of Rom 5:12. All sinned when Adam sinned.

But because of one man's work on the cross the entire human race is eligible for justification. On one hand from one sin comes condemnation for all and many sins and on the other hand from judgment for many sins comes one justification for all. 2Cor 5:21;

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