Class Notes: 5/9/2024

The book of Romans part 220 Rom 5:17;

https://youtu.be/LUymV8h2VNU

In our verse-by-verse study of Romans last time we started working on Rom 5:17; Our translation so far is "If for by the one trespass the death reigned by the one"

We see that the verse begins with the conditional particle "ei" (if) that combined with the indicative mood verb introduces the protasis of a first class condition. If and it is true.

The explanatory use of the conjunctive particle "gar" (for) introduces "a fortiori" logic relating to the believer's future eternal blessing from God. Plus the definite article with the instrumental of "paraptoma" (transgression) referring to Adam's sin.


Along with the possessive genitive of the definite article "ho" (the) with the possessive genitive of the number "eis" (one). In the Greek adjectives are often used as nouns and the meaning changes slightly. "Ho eis" (the one) refers to Adam.

These are all monadic so they are referencing specific cases.

Then comes the subject, "thanatos" (death) that is used when one death is going to be differentiated from another. Here we have "ho thanatos" referring specifically to the case of spiritual death.

It is in the nominative singular so it is translated "the death" again it is monadic referring to a specific kind of death (spiritual death) and that concept is not brought over into the English translations.

" If for by the transgression of the one the death (the condition into which we were born is spiritual death." Death "ruled" the aorist active indicative of "basileuo" (to rule or to reign).

The verb is in the culminative aorist tense so it views spiritual death from God's justice in its entirety from the viewpoint of existing results. Because everyone is born spiritually dead spiritual death rules the entire human race.

The active voice: spiritual death produces the action of the verb. The indicative mood is declarative for the reality of the first class condition. Plus the prepositional phrase, "dia" (through or because of) with the definite article "ho" (the) and the genitive of the numeral adjective "eis" (one) that is used as a substantive.

Dia plus the genitive means "through"; dia plus the accusative means "because of." So it is properly translated " the death ruled through the one (the first Adam who sinned)," and it did.

We see from this that one man's transgression in the garden resulted in God's justice condemning the entire human race to spiritual death. Remember that man's point of reference in the garden before the fall was God's love not God's justice because God's love makes no provision for sin and that conflicts with God's perfect integrity.

Making it worse, God's justice cannot make provision for sin for salvation until after God's justice has first condemned sin. This means that God's justice had no relationship with man in the garden until after the man (Adam) sinned.

When man entered into a relationship with God's justice it was on the basis of condemnation in spiritual death. The principle is that justice must condemn before justice can bless.

This means that for salvation to be sourced from God's justice condemnation must precede justification. God turns the curse into a blessing by finding a way to do this. That way is Jesus Christ.

Spiritual death rules in the human race because of the fall of Adam. Satan is the ruler of this world but the ruler of mankind is spiritual death. This was the function of God's justice and what Jesus Christ did to overcome this is described as "much more."

If God has done much more for us in justification it follows a fortiori that in eternity He can do the lesser "much more" (polus mallon) the dative singular from the adjective "polus" (much) is used as an idiom connected with the comparative adverb "mallon" (more) so we have "much more"

This is telling us that the greater work has already been accomplished. This is the beginning of the "a fortiori" logic because it expresses the concept of with stronger reason or to a greater degree in this case it is referring to "much more."

If the greater function of God's justice has occurred the lesser will not be withheld. If God can do the greater it follows a fortiori that God can certainly accomplish the lesser.

If God did the just thing in condemning Adam and the human race, it follows a fortiori that God can do the lesser in rewarding believers from His justice with blessing in time and eternity.

If a weak cause (Adam's sin) passively committed by the human race while seminally in Adam has brought spiritual death, much more certainly will a strong cause (the imputation of God's righteousness for justification received at salvation) provide the a fortiori for eternal blessing.

If we have received the greater in the imputation of God's righteousness for justification it follows a fortiori that God's justice will not hold back the lesser of blessing in time, eternal blessing and rewards for the mature believer.

If God did the most for us in time (great blessing for the mature believer) He will only do much more than the most in eternity.

"the ones who receive the abundance of the grace and the gift of the righteousness in life." Most English translations change the word order to make it more readable but it also makes it wrong.

It should be translated, "much more the ones who receive in life," not "will reign in life." The English should be translated "they who receive in life will reign."

The only translation that I use frequently that gets it right is the Young's Literal Translation because it actually follows the word order in the original Greek.

Every one of the nouns in the list also has a definite article attached "ho perisseia" (the abundance) "ho charis" (the grace) "ho dorea" (the gift) " ho dikaiosune" (the righteousness."

"the ones who receive" the present active participle of the verb "lambano" (receive). The definite article is used as a relative pronoun referring to the believer who not only attains salvation adjustment to God's justice and resultant righteousness but also attains capacity from maturity adjustment to God's justice where super abundance of blessing from God can be conveyed directly.

The present tense is a customary present tense that tells us that this always happens to everyone who attains maturity adjustment to God's justice at spiritual maturity. The active voice of the participle: the subject produces the action of the verb, and the subject is the person who first of all attains salvation adjustment to God's justice through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.

Then over a period of time develops capacity, by rebounding and taking in doctrine, and thereby attaining maturity adjustment to God's justice. So it is the believer who attains maturity adjustment who produces the action of this verb.

The verb is circumstantial with the customary present indicating the reality of the fact that in every generation there are those who advance to spiritual maturity with the result that they receive the most fantastic blessings directly from God's justice.


Next is "en" (in) plus the locative of "zoe" (life) used for the function of life. "Zoe" almost always refers to what happens in life so we have "much more they who receive in life."

Note that it says "in life" referring to life on this planet in time while inhabiting sin nature infused biological bodies in the devil's world.

"the abundance of the grace" with the accusative singular direct object is the definite article "ho" (the) along with the accusative singular direct object from "perisseia" (abundance).

It means abundance or surplus plus the genitive singular of "charis" (grace) with the definite article. When the believer reaches spiritual maturity he has a surplus of grace in the sense of unusual blessing "the surplus of the grace."

This is a reference to direct blessings from God's justice being directed to those who advance to spiritual maturity. Remember God's justice can only bless perfect righteousness.

This means that direct blessing from God's justice must be exclusively targeted to perfection because God's justice condemns anything less than perfection.

God's integrity is comprised of perfect righteousness and perfect justice. Justice is the guardian of God's attributes in addition to being the believer's point of contact with God.

There must be no compromise in the function of the attributes of God. That means that righteousness demands righteousness and justice demands justice.

To avoid compromise and inconsistency a principle of doctrine becomes axiomatic: Divine justice can only bless divine righteousness. Righteousness is the principle of divine integrity; justice is the function of divine integrity.

God cannot accept anything less than perfect righteousness and God cannot bless anything less than perfect righteousness. Therefore God's justice that is the source of all direct blessing from God because God is free to provide such blessing where perfect righteousness resides.

This means that the imputation of God's righteousness is the predicate for any direct blessing from God's justice.

God loves His own integrity that is comprised of His righteousness and justice. Therefore what His righteousness rejects His justice condemns. What His righteousness accepts or approves His justice blesses.

This fulfils the principle that God's justice administers what God's righteousness demands. At the moment of faith in Jesus Christ mankind receives the imputation of God's righteousness and resultant justification that sets up the pipeline for blessing.

God recognizes His righteousness wherever it resides. Justification is simply God recognizing the imputation of His own righteousness at the moment of faith in Jesus Christ. Justification must precede all other blessings from God.

Therefore righteousness imputed and resultant justification is the primary potential for all blessing from God's justice. While righteousness imputed is the potential, doctrine perceived through the function of GASP creates the capacity for and reality of God's blessing.

"and the gift of the righteousness" - the connective use of "kai", (and) plus the objective genitive singular from "dorea" (gift or bounty) with the descriptive genitive singular from the definite article "ho" (the) and the descriptive genitive singular of "dikaiosune" (righteousness). That is God's righteousness that is the predicate for receiving all direct blessing from God.

If God's justice provided in life the greater, namely the gift of righteousness and direct blessing from God's justice to the mature believer, it follows a fortiori that He can do the lesser of conveying rewards in eternity.

If God can bless the mature believer in time it follows a fortiori that He can reward and bless the same believer in eternity.

It is more difficult for God to bless believers in time than in eternity. In eternity there is no opposition from satan, from satan's cosmos or from the old sin nature.

The easier is the blessing for the mature believer in eternity. That is why we have the next phrase, "shall reign through the one, Jesus Christ."

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