Class Notes: 5/19/2024

The book of Romans part 223 Rom 5:19;

In our verse by verse study of Romans we are in the first phrase of Rom 5:19; " For as through one man's disobedience."

The postpositive conjunctive particle "gar" (for) is used to explain the reason why with the adverb "hosper" (as). Then a prepositional phrase, "dia" (through) plus the genitive of " parakoe" with the article " translated "(the disobedience) that means disobedience, but it is monadic so it refers to a specific type of disobedience.

This is used primarily for female or responder disobedience so it actually means not being willing to listen, learn and obey resulting in disobedience. It is a feminine word.

Next is an ablative of means from the numeral "eis" (one) plus the noun "anthropos" (man) with the article "ho" (the) (the one man) so again it is monadic referring to Adam. The ablative of means is used when the expression of means is accompanied by the reason of its origin or source.

The feminine noun indicates that Adam also rejected God's authority. God's Word describes men as feminine when they reject legitimate authority. "For as through the one man's disobedience" is a reference to Adam's original sin of disobeying God in the garden.

The nature of the original sin was disobedience to God's authority in the garden. God was the authority because He was the creator of perfect people in a perfect environment.

The perfect reference point for God's perfect creation was God's love. This means that neither justice nor grace were involved in the pristine perfect environment of the Garden of Eden.

Adam's original sin changed all of that and man's point of reference switched from God's love to God's justice.

The first function of God's justice was condemnation because righteousness demands righteousness and justice demands justice. God's justice executes what God's righteousness demands.

Adam's original sin resulted in both immediate spiritual death along with the immediate acquisition of the old sin nature. The old sin nature originated from Adam's disobedience. The normal tendency of the old sin nature is to reject authority.

Adam's perfect body became a body of corruption and the biological flesh was contaminated by Adam's tendency or trend that God's Word describes as "the old man" or "the old sin nature." Adam's sin nature tendency is perpetuated to humanity at physical birth through genetics.

The genetically formed old sin nature is the home for the imputation of Adam's original sin to each member of the human race at birth as a real imputation of condemnation.

A real imputation involves God's justice attributing what is antecedently one's own. Spiritual death is the combination of Adam's original sin along with Adam's tendency to disobey by a real imputation.

The consequences of spiritual death include:

a) The old sin nature becomes the sovereign of the human race and human life, ruling through spiritual death;

b) man's natural way of life follows the trend or tendency of Adam's disobedience toward human good and evil, as well as toward sin;

c) satan the devil became the ruler of the world because Adam had obeyed him and rejected God.

"the many were made sinners" the nominative plural subject from the adjective "polus" (many) used as a substantive, a noun along with the definite article "ho" (the) referring specifically to the entire human race with the exception of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Plus the predicate nominative plural from "hamartolos" (sinners), an adjective used as a substantive meaning "sinful ones or sinners." It is a reference to the possession of the old sin nature that is propagated when biological life is conceived.

Next is the aorist passive indicative of the verb "kathisthmi" (stand down). This is a compound verb "kata" (down)' "isthmi" (stand) so it literally means to stand down, to set down, to put in place.

But in this case it is in the passive voice here so it means to put in place or appoint, to make, to set up, or to establish" the many (each and every member of the entire human race) was appointed, put in place or set up as sinners when they were born as babies before they did anything at all.

This tells us that we are not sinners initially because we have committed sin but we are sinful ones because we are appointed to or set up to sin. The aorist tense is a constantive aorist that gathers into one situation the entire action of the verb.

It takes the occurrence that is the imputation of Adam's original sin to each and every member of the human race at birth and regardless of the duration of history it gathers the birth of every human except for Jesus Christ into the situation of being appointed or set up as a sinner at birth.

That is why we are born to sin. That reminds me of one of my favorite rock songs Steppenwolf's "Born to be Wild." That song accurately describes the entire human race at birth.

There are two imputations; the imputation of human life to the soul and the imputation of Adam's original sin to the old sin nature, and that is condemnation. So that when we are born we are born as a copy of Adam's nature after the fall. The passive voice tells us that at physical birth every human being receives the action of the verb.

In this passage this is called an appointment. Human life is an appointment with sin and death. At the moment of our birth we have an appointment with spiritual death. The indicative mood is declarative for a dogmatic statement of doctrinal reality the imputation of Adam's sin at the point of physical birth that results in our being "sinners" before we did anything.

The appointment to a state of sinfulness is the actual imputation of Adam's sin at birth to the old sin nature that is its genetically formed home in the physical body at the birth of every naturally born human being.

"so by the obedience of the one shall the many will be appointed righteous" the object of the verb is the nominative plural of "dikaios" (righteous), the adjective used as a substantive that it means "righteous ones."

It is a predicate nominative because "katisthmi" (appoint, establish, made or set up) takes the nominative case rather than the accusative as its object. It describes every believer in Jesus Christ as " the righteous."

God establishes or sets up everyone who believes in Jesus Christ as "righteous" regardless of the fact that they are already set up as sinners. This means God sets up believers as righteous sinners and then instructs them on how to stop committing sin.

"Dikaios" (righteous) refers to the irrevocable imputation of God's perfect righteousness to believers in Jesus at salvation. The justification that results establishes potential for direct blessing from God's justice. These direct blessings are temporal blessings that glorify God in time and preserve the client nation.

This righteousness creates a pipeline for direct blessing from God's justice. On God's end is God's justice and on the believer's end is God's irrevocable perfect righteousness imputed.

All blessing from God's justice to the believer flows through the grace pipeline. Justice is the source and imputed righteousness is the recipient. God's justice can only bless God's righteousness. This is a judicial imputation because there is no antecedent for it.

God's provision of grace through the grace pipeline provides more blessing for man in the devil's world than Adam lost in the fall and subsequent expulsion from perfect environment.

Expanded Translation Rom 5:19; "For as through one man's disobedience (Adam's) the many (human race) were set up as sinful (the OSN ruling human life through spiritual death), so also through one man's obedience (Christ) the many shall be set up as righteous (imputation of divine righteousness and subsequent justification)."

Rom 5:20; describes the deployment of God's grace since the fall of Adam in the garden. The first sentence of this verse explains that the Mosaic Law is an instrument of condemnation.

Remember that God's justice has to condemn you before you can become a candidate for God's grace.

"But the law entered, that the transgression might abound." "De" (but) is the postpositive conjunctive particle translated (but) that is used as a transitional particle.

Then the word "nomos" (Law) it is nominative singular subject without the definite article so it is anarthrous emphasizing the quality of the noun.

Since the law came from God the law is perfect. There is nothing wrong with the law but like anything that comes from God it is often distorted and misused by untaught people.
The verb is the aorist active indicative of "pareiserchoma" (came in). It is a dramatic word that means to come onto the stage in the role of a minor actor in order to play a minor part.

So the law is a minor actor that plays a minor part in life. "Now the law came in as a minor actor to play a minor role," or we can just simply translate "But the law came in as a side issue."

The aorist tense is a dramatic aorist that states a present reality with the certainty of a past event. This idiom is a device for emphasis and it states what has just been revealed in the preceding passage.

We have seen that spiritual death existed all of the way from the fall of Adam to the giving of the Law at the time of Moses. All of that time personal sins were not imputed, and yet everyone was condemned because Adam's original sin in the fall was imputed to the old sin nature at the point of physical birth producing spiritual death in physical human life.

From Moses to Jesus Christ, the Law is there but personal sins are still not the basis for spiritual death. Only one sin (Adam's sin) is the basis for spiritual death and all personal sins were collected and became the judicial imputation of sin in Jesus' physical human body on the cross.

This is a middle voice here but it is a deponent verb, so it is middle in form but active in meaning. The Mosaic Law produces the action of the verb it enters history as a minor actor to play a minor role.

That role is to magnify and augment in order to make the condemnation that comes from the imputation of Adam's sin to its genetic home the OSN. The Mosaic Law is an augmentation and that is the end of its role as it relates to spiritual death.

"so that the transgression would increase" the conjunction "hina" (that) introduces the final clause that provides a purpose, aim, goal, or objective of the Law. Plus the nominative singular subject with the article " ho paraptoma" (trespass) with the article" ho" (the) so it is monadic (the trespass).

This is a technical in this section for Adam's original sin. The verb is the aorist active subjunctive of "pleonazo" (increase) that means to be present in abundance, to have more than is necessary. It also means to be augmented, enlarged, or increased.

"in order that the transgression of Adam might be augmented (enlarged or increased)." It is a constantive aorist tense that refers to a fact or action that is extended over a period of time in human history.

The constantive aorist gathers into one entirety this function of the Mosaic Law. So from the time the Law was given until the end of time it acts in a minor role of making the consequences of spiritual death and condemnation from Adam's sin more obvious.

The active voice: Adam's original sin produces the action of the verb. The subjunctive mood is a potential subjunctive that is qualified by the element of contingency. In other words, the potential depends on the proper use of the Mosaic Law.

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